Banff is a town in the Banff and Buchan area of Aberdeenshire, Scotland. Banff is situated on Banff Bay and faces the town of Macduff across the estuary of the River Banff is a former royal burgh, and also is the county town of the historic county of Banffshire. Banff's initial castle was constructed to push back Viking intruders and also a charter of 1163 AD shows that Malcolm IV was living there at that time. During this period the community was an active trading centre in the "totally free hanse" of Northern Scottish burghs, regardless of not having its own harbour till 1775. The very first taped Sheriff of Banff was Richard de Strathewan in 1264, and in 1372 Royal Burgh condition was provided by King Robert II. By the 15th century Banff was just one of three major towns exporting salmon to the continent of Europe, in addition to Aberdeen as well as Montrose. There was a lot of lawlessness in seventeenth-century Scotland, and also several of the worst offenders were participants of the nobility. According to documents kept by chronicler William Cramond, the tolbooth (court house and also prison) of Banff was, in 1628, the site of a run-in in between Lord Banff and also James Ogilvie, his relative. Apparently, he struck James Ogilvie upon the head with a baton during a court hearing. Twenty of his close friends and followers then assaulted Ogilvie with swords before chasing him right into the street as well as completing him off with a handgun shot. Banff and Macduff are divided by the valley of the River Deveron. This unpredictable river was ultimately subjugated by the seven curved bridge completed in 1779 by John Smeaton. An earlier bridge had actually been constructed in 1765, however was swept away in 1768. The old ferry was restored into usage, up until it was lost in a flood in 1773. A public conference was kept in 1800 as well as passed a resolution for the structure of a turnpike roadway in between Turiff and also Banff as the existing roadway remained in a depressing state of repair work. Later on 19th century transport improvements consisted of the structure of two train lines, from Macduff to Turiff in 1860 and also the Banff, Portsoy and Strathisla Railway in 1859 which linked to the main Aberdeen to Inverness line. Throughout the 19th Century the Banff Fishery District (consisting of the ports from Crovie to Sandend) was necessary to the herring trade, with manufacturing coming to a head in 1853 at greater than sixty-thousand barrels, of which almost thirty-four thousand were exported, nevertheless by 1912 production had actually decreased to just over eight thousand barrels. Presently, the languages talked in the town as well as in its location have a tendency to be the Doric language of Scots, and English.